Category Archives: India

Hazrat Maulana Ziauddin Sahab Rehmat Fakhri Nizami Chisti Dargah, Jaipur

Source: https://hazratmaulanaziauddin.weebly.com/ (Oct 2018)

Basic information

Location (country): India

Location (city): Jaipur, Rajasthan

Location (neighbourhood): Char Darwaza 302002

Location (GPS coordinates): (c.f. https://www.gps-coordinates.net/)

Latitude: 26.927362 | Longitude: 75.838432

Type of religious site: (i.e. dargah, shrine, stupa etc.) Dargah

Religious communities attending: Hindu, Sikh, Muslim

Number of communities attending: 3

Language(s) used for ceremonies and prayers: Hindi, Urdu, local dialects

Approximate size of the site: (in m2)

Year of construction: Mosque built in 1798; Mausoleum built in 1929

Pilgrimage location: NO

Pilgrimage season:

Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: Urs (August –September)

Website page of the site:

https://www.facebook.com/Dargah-Hazrat-Maulana-Ziauddin-Sahab-Rh-Fakhri-Nizami-Chishti-Jaipur-219848224700992/

https://hazratmaulanaziauddin.weebly.com/

Name and title of the in-charge of the site 

Hazrat Syed Zainul-abideen (Mehmood Mian Sahib) is the Sajjadanashin and Mutawalli of the Dargah Sharif

 

Overview of the site

Located in the predominantly Muslim locality of Char Darwaza, Subhash Chowk, Jaipur, the Dargah Hazrat Maulana Ziauddin Sahab Rehmat Fakhri Nizami Chisti is one of the most reputed dargahs of the Nizami chistiya sufi order in Jaipur. Among the dargah visitors, it’s largely Muslims from various sects and beliefs, but a smattering of Hindu and Sikh presence is observed. Most worshippers of the shrine, come here after incidents of spirit possession, black magic, loss and misfortune etc., the cure for which not only lies in the blessings of Maulana Ziauddin Sahib, but also in the hands of a small shrine of Rehmat Ali Baba within the complex. Is Rehmat Ali Baba then the crowd-puller? Through an observation of the faith, beliefs and practices of visitors at the site, I would like to examine how interactions, connections and ‘shared’ sacredness among the two shrines of Hazrat Maulana Ziauddin and Rehmat Ali Baba are built.

 

Economy of the site

The ownership is disputed as Maulana Ziauddin did not have a direct descendant. There is a court case between the present Sajjadanashin family. Hazrat Syed Zainul-abideen (Mehmood Mian Sahib) is the Sajjadanashin and Mutawalli of the Dargah Sharif.

 

Conflicts revolving around the site

  1. The ownership of the site.
  2. It seems there are also rivalries with other Chistiya dargahs in the city, especially with Hazrat Miskeen Shah; often manifested in conversations of which saint came into Jaipur first. (This authenticity claim/one-upmanship could be related to lineage issues?)

 

Bibliography pertaining to the site

Bentley, M., Peerenboom, C. A., Hodge, F. W., Passano, E. B., Warren, H. C., & Washburn, M. F. (1929). Instructions in regard to preparation of manuscript. Psychological Bulletin, 26, 57–63. doi:10.1037/h0071487

Rappaport, J. (1977). Community psychology: Values, research and action. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Vasudev Mandir/Meera Baba Mandir

A Muslim visitor at the Vasudev Mandir, Amroha, India, 2015, credits: Dr Laurent Gayer

SITE – Basic information

Country: India
City: Amroha
Location: Fazalpur
Type of religious site: Hindu (Vaishnavite) temple
Religious community(ies) attending: Hindus, Sikhs, Sunni and Shia Muslims
No of communities attending: 4
Language(s) used for ceremonies and prayers: Hindi/Sanskrit
Approximate size of the site: 500 m2
Pilgrimage location: YES
Pilgrimage season: The ceremony in honour of Sheikh Saddo, known as Mian ki Jat, is performed every Tuesday, while the temple is visited by piligrims from all over India during the Hindu month of Jeth (May/June).
Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: The annual mela is organized around the birthday of Sheikh Saddo, during the Hindu month of Jeth (May/June).
Name and title of the in-charge of the site (if known): Shiv Swaroop Tandon (Chairman, Sri Vasudev Trust)

SITE – Overview of the site

The qasbah of Amroha, located in the state of Uttar Pradesh, is one of the bastions of Shiism in North India. It is also a place of pilgrimage dedicated to a figure both heterodox and ecumenical, Sheikh Saddo. This Muslim wonder-maker (amil) is said to have lived in the city in the mid-eighteenth century. He became famous in his lifetime for his occult powers and his power over Jinns. After breaking the pact that bound him to one of these fire spirits, known as Zain Khan, the Sheikh was killed by the vengeful Jinn, before regaining ascendancy over him after his death. From the late eighteenth onward, a multi-religious cult developed around the two spirits, bringing Muslim and non-Muslim pilgrims from all over India. Today, the spirits of the Sheikh and his Jinn continue to haunt Amroha, bringing disorder (for instance by taking possession of young women) while spreading their benefits (by healing infertility or by granting more mundane wishes, such as helping supplicants win the lottery). Until the 1960s, the cult to Sheikh Saddo (known by Hindus as Meera Baba) revolved around one of Amroha’s oldest mosque, the Kaiqubadi Masjid (better known today as the Saddo Masjid), where Sheikh Saddo is said to be buried. The cult was co-managed by Sunni and Shia families before a dispute over the ritual economy of the cult fuelled sectarian tensions, which led public authorities to close down the site. The cult then moved into Amroha’s largest Hindu temple in the city, the Vasudev Mandir, where it continued to attract both Sunni and Shia Muslims (though in lesser numbers than Hindu pilgrims). A much smaller number of pilgrims still visits the older site, located in the Saddo Mohalla of Amroha.

SITE – Economy of the site

During the 1960s, the (Shia) Syeds’ control over the ritual economy surrounding the Saddo Masjid created tensions, because the former were accused of taking advantage of the (Sunni) Sheikhs’ precarious situation to enrich themselves. Sunni reformist groups took advantage of these undercurrents. In the summer of 1966, a group of followers of the Tablighi Jama’at organized collective prayers at the shrine of Sheikh Saddo, which they wanted to turn back into a mosque for the exclusive use of the Sunnis (the Shia, for their part, claimed that this was in fact a dargah). Fearing that this campaign would lead to sectarian violence, local authorities decided to close down the site. Sunni and Shia shareholders took their dispute before the courts, but the latter refused to take sides and the case remains pending. After the cult was transferred to Vasudev Mandir, no significant communal/sectarian conflict has been recorded at or around the site.

SITE – Bibliography pertaining to the site

Link: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/category/sources/bibliography-per-site/on-vasudeo-mandir

Abbasi, Ahmad([1930] .2005). Tarîkh-e-Amroha (Urdu) [The History of Amroha], Mumbai, Kitabard.

Crooke, William. 1896.  The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, Vol. 1, Westminster, Archibald & Co.

Jones, Justin. (2009), « The Local Experiences of Reformist Islam in a ‘‘Muslim’’ Town in Colonial India : The Case of Amroha,» Modern Asian Studies, 43 (4), pp. 871-908.

Naqvi, Shahwar Husain [1889].2007. Tarîkh-e-Asgharî (Urdu) edited by Maulana Dr. Syed Shehwar Husain Naqvi, Amroha, Mir Anis Akademi.

Nevill, H.R. .1911. Moradabad. A Gazetteer, Being Vol XVI of the District  Gazetteer of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Allahabad, Government Press.

Tassy, Garcin de .1831. Mémoire sur des particularités de la religion musulmane dans l’Inde, d’après les ouvrages hindoustani, Paris, Imprimerie royale.

SITE – Photos of the site

For more: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/512

 Fieldwork conducted by Dr. Laurent Gayer

 

Meher baba shrine, Pune

Meher Baba shrine, Pune, India, 2016, Credits: Dr Borayin Larios

Basic information

Country: India
City: Pune, Maharashtra
Location: Somwar Peth
Type of religious site: wayside shrine
Religious communities attending: mostly Hindus and followers of Meher Baba
No of communities attending: unknown
Languages used for ceremonies and prayers: Marathi and Hindi
Approximate size of the site: 20 m2
Year of construction: unknown
Pilgrimage location: No
Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: Gurupurnima, Meher Baba Samadhi’s anniversary day (31 January 1969), etc.

Overview of the site

This is a “wayside” shrine attached to the entrance to a house owned by a devotee of Meher Baba. The space is on private property, but it is visible to any passerby and diverse paraphernalia such as flags and posters with religious symbols from all major religions are on display (including a pair of sandals of Meher Baba are right at the entrance portico). The displays also showcase the teachings of Meher Baba including his famous saying “don’t worry, be happy.” Satsangs and other programs are held inside. The house has been named “Meher Darbār” or “Meher’s court”.

The shrine is indirectly connected to Hazrat Babajan’s Tomb shrine in Pune (which also attracts a number of devotees from several religious backgrounds), because Meher Baba at the age of 19, during his second year at Deccan College in Pune, met Hazrat Babajan, a Muslim woman saint who kissed him on the forehead. This made Meher Baba start his spiritual life.

Economy of the site

The house on a main street located in the busy neighbourhood of Somwar Peth, in old Pune near the police station. The house is privately owned and unlike many other street shrines of Pune, this one does not seem to be physically appropriating public space. A large number of pedestrians, as well as vehicles pass by. While not many of them stop or engage with the “shrine” in any significant way, some stop to look at the unique display. I could only observe an occasional salutation (pranam) by a handful of pedestrians, however, presumably devotees of Meher Baba attend the satsangs and other programs inside the house.

Bibliography pertaining to the site

Link (coming soon): https://ishare.hypotheses.org/category/sites/india/hazrat-babaa-jan-dargah

 

See Photos of the Meher Baba Shrine

 Fieldwork conducted by Dr. Borayin Larios

 

 

Annai Vailankanni Shrine

Annai Vailankanni Shrine, Chennai, India, 2007, credits: P.-Y. Trouillet

SITE – Basic information

Country: India
City: Chennai
Location: Besant Nagar
Type of religious site: Church/Basilica
Religious communities attending: Christians, Hindus, others
Languages used for ceremonies and prayers: Tamil, English
Year of construction: 1971-1973
Pilgrimage location: YES
Pilgrimage season: August/September
Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: 1 main annual festival, the Feast of Mary (first 10 days of September)
Website page of the site: http://vailankannishrinechennai.in/
Name and title of the in-charge of the site: Rev. Fr. B.K. Francis Xavier (The rector and parish priest)

SITE – Overview of the site

Located in the Besant Nagar area in Chennai (Tamil Nadu), this church is called Annai Vailankanni Shrine in reference to the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health (Mary) situated in the locality of Vailankanni (or Velankani, in Nagapattinam district), which is one of the biggest Catholic pilgrimage centres in South India. Actually, the Chennai Annai Vailankanni Church can be regarded as an urban ‘copy’ or ‘replica’ of the original shrine.
 
This church has grown in popularity since its construction in the 1970s, for it attracts now crowds of devotees during its yearly festival, among which many non-Christian people, mostly Hindus, are a significant part, as it is the case in the original Vailankanni Basilica. 
 
The very site of the church also deserves attention since it is located in a white collar and recreational area of Chennai, on the beachfront, where two quite large and renowned Hindu temples have also been established during the last decades (one of them is also a ‘replica’). Thus, even if the ‘shared’ practice of this church is deeply linked with the long story of coexistence between Hindus and Christians in South India, it may also be influenced by some very contemporary leisure and recreational activities that might be useful to take into consideration in the study of urban ‘shared shrines’ in India.

SITE – Bibliography pertaining to the site

Link: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/category/sources/bibliography-per-site/on-annai-vailankanni-shrine

 

Assayag, Jackie and G. Tarabout (eds.). 1997. Altérité et identité. Islam et christianisme en Inde, Paris: Editions de l’EHESS.

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine. 2008. Les chrétiens de l’Inde: Entre castes et églises. Paris: Albin Michel

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine. 1993. “Indianisation et enracinement: les enjeux de l’inculturation de l’Eglise en Inde”. Bulletin de l’Ecole Française d’Extreme-Orient, 80, pp. 107-133

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine.1993. “L’indigénisation du christianisme en Inde pendant la période coloniale”. Archives des sciences sociales des religions, 103, pp. 5-19

Mayaram, Shail. 2004. “Beyond Ethnicity? Being Hindu and Muslim in South Asia.” In Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict, edited by Imtiaz Ahmad and H. Refield. New Delhi: Social Science Press.

Mosse, David. 2012. The Saint in the Banyan Tree: Christianity and Caste Society in India, Berkeley: University of California Press

Roberts, Nathaniel. 2017. To Be Cared For: The Power of Conversion and Foreignness of Belonging in an Indian Slum. Oakland: University of California Press.

Sebastia, Brigitte. 2002. Mâriyamman-Mariyamman. Catholic Practices and Image of Virgin in Velankanni (Tamil Nadu). Pondicherry: Pondicherry French Institute, Pondy Papers in Social Sciences, 27, 73 p.

Younger, Paul. 1992. “Velankanni Calling: Hindu Patterns of Pilgrimage at a Christian Shrine”, In Sacred Journeys. The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis. Westport, Connecticut, London, Greenwood Press.

Fieldwork conducted by Dr. Pierre-Yves Trouillet

Ajmer Sharif Dargah

Chanted Procession, Sharif Basant, Ajmer Dargah, India, 2018, credits: Prof. Christophe Jaffrelot

SITE – Basic information

Country: India
City: Ajmer
Neighbourhood: Khadim Mohalla, Dargah Bazaar
Type of religious site: Dargah
Religious communityies attending: Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Tourists
No of communities attending: 5
Languages used for ceremonies and prayers: Urdu, Arabic, Hindi, Brij Bhasha
Approximate size of the site: 400-500 m2
Year of construction: 12th century
Pilgrimage location: YES
Pilgrimage season: All year round, particularly during annual Urs in March-April (according to the lunar calendar)
Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: Urs, Id, Birth anniversary of Moinuddin Chisty, Basant Panchami
Website page of the site: http://www.gharibnawaz.in/ & http://ajmerdargahdewan.com/
Name and title of the in-charge of the site: Nazim, Dargah Committee (under the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India)

SITE – Overview of the site

The Dargah Sharif of Ajmer is the most important Sufi shrine of South Asia. This shrine is important because it has been built over the place where Moinuddin Chisti
(1138? – 1235) used to live and where is tomb is. Mu’in al-din is the founder of the Chisti order in the region – the most popular Sufi order in India.

Although, Chisty had arrived to Ajmer in the 12th century, it was only after the visit of the Mughal Emperor Akbar in the 17th century, that the shrine’s popularity had increased to an unprecedented level under its new patron. After Akbar, most of the political leaders of India, including Hindu maharajas and current Hindu nationalist figures, will come and pay respects to the saint.

The shrine is a shared sacred space between various religious communities of South Asia, both Muslims and non-Muslims. They are drawn towards the power of the saint, who practically can fulfil all their mannats, wishes, regardless of one’s own religion, caste or creed. There are several cultural traits of Hinduism that have been absorbed by the Dargah culture at Ajmer, for instance making of a langar, community kitchen, or celebrating the festival of Basant Panchami, or even wearing of a saffron robe by the Sajjadanashin. These certainly give a syncretic element to the place. However, the shrine largely remains an Islamic place in its character, where sharing can be restricted both temporally or spatially.

In spite of these limitations, the Dargah remains one of the few places where Muslims and non-Muslims of India co-exist (and sometimes interact), at a time when the segregation of the urban space and the rise of Hindu nationalism have made the relations between both communities more complicated. In that sense, the Dargah culture shows some resilience.

SITE – Economy of the site

The Ajmer Dargah is a site of immense economic activity. While one takes the Dargah Bazaar, the bazaar named after the shrine itself, road, one comes across an incredible variety of shops, from eateries to cloths, shoes, utensils, toys, bangles, parking lots, hotels, sweets to of course religious paraphernalia including chadars and baskets of roses. The shops continue till we enter the first gate of shrine. The shops outside the shrine are owned mostly by Sindhis and Hindu Baniyas, and some by Muslims (closer to the shrine); those inside the shrine are exclusively run by khadims.

Khadims inside the shrine have access to hujras, pilgrim rest places, which they claim belong to them. These are practically the offices of khadims from where the religious business takes place – the pilgrims come to the khadims and pay a certain amount for the khidmat, the services, the khadim will offer for the ziyarat, prayer, all scrupulously noted in their ledger. Besides, many khadims use websites to promote their activities, and for online payment for the ziyarat, lest the pilgrim may not be present in person.

SITE – Conflicts revolving around the site

There are several conflicts revolving around the site. First, conflict between the Dewan or the Sajjadanashin, and the khadims for access to the offerings made to the shrine or property inside or around the Dargah. A minor one is between the family of the Dewan himself – between him and his son on one side, and Dewan’s younger brother who claimed to be the Dewan recently. Second, conflictual relationship is between the Dargah Committee, and the Committees of the Khadims on one side and the Dewan on the other, once again on matters of sharing the offering. Third, Between the Khadims – there are two branches, Syedzadgan and Sheikhzadgan[JSS1] , the former in majority. Both try to have more access to resources and pilgrims. Also, there are conflicts within some khadim families for access to the hujra. Last, between some radical right wing Hindu elements who were involved in the Ajmer Dargah blasts, or organisations like Shiv Sena Hindustan that recently made a call to demolish the Ajmer shrine.

SITE – Bibliography pertaining to the site

Link: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/category/sources/bibliography-per-site/on-muin-al-din-chisti-dargah

Akbar, Sohail. 2018. “Ajmer Sharif’s Photo Booths Capture an Islam that is Diverse and Local.” Econmic and Political Weekly, 53(5), pp. 3320-3331.

Begg, Wahiduddin. 1977. The Holy Biography of Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Hasan Chishti. East-West Publications Fonds.

Currie, Peter M. 1978. “The Shrine and Cult of Mu’in Al-dīn Chishtī of Ajmer.” University of Oxford.

Dhaul, Laxmi and Sanjay S. Badnor. 2001. The Sufi Saint of Ajmer. Thea Enterprises.

Metcalf, Barbara D. 2009. Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton University Press.

Moini, Syed L. H. 1989. “Rituals and Customary Practices at the Dargah of Ajmer.” Muslim Shrines in India: Their Character, History and Significance:60-75.

Nizami, Khaliq A. 1961. Some Aspects of Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century. Bombay; New York: Asia Publishing House.

Rizvi, Saiyid A. A. 1978. “A History of Sufism in India, 2 Vols.” New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal 83.

Sarda, Har B. 1941. Ajmer: Historical and Descriptive. Fine Art Printing Press.

Tirmizi, SAI. 1968. Ajmer through Inscriptions [1532-1852 AD.Indian Institute of Islamic Studies.

 

See Photos of the Ajmer Sharif dargah site here

And for a comparison, see photos of the Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi

 

SITE – Videos of the site

Link: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/579

SITE – Links to the site

General link: https://www. sundayguardianlive.com/news/ ajmer-dargah-sees-rift-dewan- khadims
Dewan was not allowed to enter inside during the important ceremony of Gusl inside the tomb: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=FLONjVNjSNw
The Ajmer rape case, where many of the khadims were involved: http://www.opindia.com/2018/ 02/india-rotherham-ajmer- chisty-congress-dargah-muslim- rape-gang/amp/
Violent clash of khadims and the Nazim, representative of the Dargah Committee: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ICf_0X4PH7w
Two group of Khadims violently clashing with each other: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=5aBxdJCUvLc ; https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=FLONjVNjSNw
Khadims clashing with the pilgrims about offerings and entering the sanctum sanctorum:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLONjVNjSNw
A very love-love-sufi-peace documentary by Sadia Dehlvi: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKikQnf7tVA&ytbChannel=null

Fieldwork conducted by Prof. Christophe Jaffrelot and Jusmeet Singh Sihra

The shrine at Taragarh in Ajmer

Replica Shia imagery, Taragarh Dargah, Ajmer, India, 2018, credits: Prof. Christophe Jaffrelot

SITE – Basic information

Country: India
City: Ajmer
Location: Taragarh
Type of religious site: Dargah
Religious communities attending: Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus
No of communities attending: 3
Languages used for ceremonies and prayers: Urdu, Hindi
Approximate size of the site: 400m2
Year of construction: after 1544AD
Pilgrimage location: YES
Pilgrimage season: All year round, particularly during annual Urs in April-May (according to the lunar calendar)
Names and dates of the main festivals celebrated in situ: Urs, Id, Moharram
Website page of the site: http://www. ajmertaragarhdargah.com/index. html
Name and title of the in-charge of the site (if known): District Magistrate, Ajmer

SITE – Overview of the site

The shrine at Taragarh is the second most important Dargah in Ajmer, and is dedicated to Syed Meeran Husaain. Hussain was the Governor of the fortress of Taragarh and was killed by the Rajput in 1202AD. The tomb of Hussain did not become a sacred site immediately. It attained sanctity only after roughly three centuries when Akbar visited the tomb during one of his visits to the shrine of Moinuddin Chisty in Ajmer. Since then, the shrine started to attract pilgrims, although it is only some twenty years back that the road was greatly improved which facilitated pilgrimage to the top of this high hill.

Another transformation started to take place post the improving of this road to Taragarh. From a Sufi shrine, the Meeran Hussain Dargah has turned into a Shia Dargah. The shrine is now adorned with glistening golden pillars closely replicating the pillars at Karbala. Not only that, a Roza of Imam Hussain is created a few metres away which also replicates the famous monument at Karbala.

This second transformation raises a number of important questions – what is the identity of this Dargah, a sufi place where qawwalis are celebrated, or a Shia monument where music is haram? How does this Dargah relate to the Ajmer Sharif which sees itself as a Sunni-Sufi Dargah? What about the relationship between the Shias on Taragarh hill and those in Ajmer city? Are there also external influences, particularly from Iran, which play a role in this transformation? These are some of the questions among others that we explore currently.

SITE – Economy of the site

Unlike the Ajmer Sharif that is bustling with economic activities, where the properties are unimaginably expensive, Meeran Hussain Dargah presents a very different picture. The shrine is surrounded by a Shia ghetto, narrow and littered streets, and a few shops. Some shops sell food, others rose-flowers to offer at the shrine. Some men stand with a couple of camels and horses, and a camera to give instant photo to the tourists. Since the shrine is far on the hill-top, there are dozens of private jeeps that bring up and down the tourists. The toll-tax to enter the hill (even though it is part of the city’s municipal boundaries, and the only area in Ajmer where it happens!), and the offerings by the pilgrims constitute the principle economic sources at the shrine.

SITE – Conflicts revolving around the site

A noticeable conflict around the site is related to its identity – do the khadims and the managers respect the norms of a sufi interpretation of Islam, or that of Shia Islam.

There are conflicting claims over the legend of some smaller sites or miracles associated with them by both the Taragarh Dargah and the Ajmer Sharif, but in no way it affects the Ajmer Sharif. It is mostly a strategy at the Taragarh Dargah to get a share of pilgrims that visit the Ajmer Sharif downhill.

The sectarian conflict between the Shia and Sunni in Ajmer does not really exist. On the contrary, during Muharram, the Sunnis come from the city downhill to Taragarh to participate in one of the evenings of mourning.

Dargahs do not exist in isolation. They are part of networks which form the notion of ‘pilgrimage circuits’. They assert their specificity in relation to others, and in doing so they engage in forms of competition. This nature of competition itself qualifies the notion of “shared sacred spaces” which becomes an extended space rather than a closed space. Taragarh Dargah is one such Dargahs that is related to Ajmer Sharif, but also in competition with this site. It is important to keep in mind this distinction while studying a shared sacred space, and seeing how it is organically, historically, mythically or geographically linked to other sacred sites.

SITE – Bibliography pertaining to the site

Link: https://ishare.hypotheses.org/category/sources/bibliography-per-site/on-syed-miran-hussain-dargah

Akbar, Sohail. 2018. “Ajmer Sharif’s Photo Booths Capture an Islam that is Diverse and Local.” Econmic and Political Weekly, 53(5), pp. 3320-3331.

Metcalf, Barbara D. 2009. Islam in South Asia in Practice.Princeton University Press.

Sarda, Har B. 1941. Ajmer: Historical and Descriptive.Fine Art Printing Press.

Tirmizi, SAI. 1968. Ajmer through Inscriptions [1532-1852 AD.Indian Institute of Islamic Studies.

 

For Photos of the Taragarh site: see here

And for a comparison, see photos of the Feroz Shah Kotla

Fieldwork conducted by Prof. Christophe Jaffrelot and Jusmeet Singh Sihra